John Kevin Baird

Head of Eijkman Oxford Clinical Research Unit


  • Professor of Malariology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
  • Ph.D., Medical Parasitology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
  • Master of Science, Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA
  • Bachelor of Science, Microbiology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA

About: Kevin earned a B.Sc. in Microbiology, M.Sc. in Biochemistry, and Ph.D. in Medical Zoology. He served 22 years on active duty in the US Navy Medical Service Corps as a Microbiologist specializing in research on malaria prevention, control, treatment, epidemiology, and immunology. He has long focused on Plasmodium vivax malaria, in particular on the problem of G6PD deficiency and primaquine therapy against relapse of that species. The unit in Jakarta undertakes clinical trials of therapies against relapse of P. vivax, principally in Indonesian soldiers but also in village settings, in addition to laboratory and field studies of G6PD deficiency biochemistry, diagnostics, and epidemiology.  


  • Diagnosis of parasitic diseases & microscopic diagnosis of malaria
  • Antimalarial resistance testing, epidemiology and treatment policy
  • Malaria control strategies and capacity-building partnerships
  • Clinical trials of antimalarials
  • Malaria epidemiology
  • Immunology of malaria
  • Interventions against epidemic malaria
  • Histopathology of parasitic diseases


  • Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Scientific Achievement Award (1984)
  • Vice President of the Tropical Medicine Association of Washington (1985)
  • Councilor to the Helminthological Society of Washington (1986)
  • Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Military Scientist of the Year (1987)
  • Defense Meritorious Service Medal (1988)
  • Navy Commendation Medal (1996, 2005)
  • Navy Achievement Medal (1996)
  • Navy Meritorious Service Medal (1999, 2003, 2005)
  • Navy Humanitarian Service Medal (2004, 2005)
  • Bailey K. Ashford Medal for outstanding work in the field of tropical medicine by the American Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, December 2005
  • Honorable discharge from US Navy active duty, 1984-2006, with rank of Captain, Medical Service Corps


  1. The effect of chloroquine dose and primaquine on Plasmodium vivax recurrence: a WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network systematic review and individual patient pooled meta-analysis.
    Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Sep;18(9):1025-1034. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30348-7. Epub 2018 Jul 20.
  2. Accurate light microscopic diagnosis of South-East Asian ovalocytosis.
    Int J Lab Hematol. 2018 Jul 13. doi: 10.1111/ijlh.12900.
  3. Malaria Elimination: Time to Target All Species.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 May 14. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0869.
  4. Negligible Impact of Mass Screening and Treatment on Mesoendemic Malaria Transmission at West Timor in Eastern Indonesia: A Cluster-Randomized Trial.
    Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Oct 15;67(9):1364-1372. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy231.
  5. Primaquine ineligibility in anti-relapse therapy of Plasmodium vivax malaria: the problem of G6PD deficiency and cytochrome P-450 2D6 polymorphisms.
    Malar J. 2018 Jan 22;17(1):42. doi: 10.1186/s12936-018-2190-z.
  6. Rational malaria chemoprophylaxis - The position of primaquine.
    Travel Med Infect Dis. 2017 May - Jun;17:3-4. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2017.04.006. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
  7. Defining the next generation of Plasmodium vivax diagnostic tests for control and elimination: Target product profiles.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Apr 3;11(4):e0005516. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005516. eCollection 2017 Apr.
  8. Management of Plasmodium vivax risk and illness in travelers.
    Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines. 2017 Mar 28;3:7. doi: 10.1186/s40794-017-0049-x. eCollection 2017.
  9. Telling the human story of Asia's invisible malaria burden.
    Lancet. 2017 Feb 25;389(10071):781-782. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30556-1.
  10. Asia-Pacific malaria is singular, pervasive, diverse and invisible.
    Int J Parasitol. 2017 Jun;47(7):371-377. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2016.06.006. Epub 2016 Nov 9.
  11. Diagnosis and Treatment of Plasmodium vivax Malaria.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016 Dec 28;95(6 Suppl):35-51. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0171. Epub 2016 Oct 5.
  12. Attacking Plasmodium vivax.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016 Dec 28;95(6 Suppl):1-3. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0517. Epub 2016 Oct 5.
  13. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax in Indonesia.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016 Dec 28;95(6 Suppl):121-132. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0093. Epub 2016 Oct 5.
  14. Key Knowledge Gaps for Plasmodium vivax Control and Elimination.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016 Jul 18. pii: 16-0180.
  15. Global Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016 Dec 28;95(6 Suppl):15-34. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0141. Epub 2016 Jul 11.
  16. The Community As the Patient in Malaria-Endemic Areas: Preempting Drug Resistance with Multiple First-Line Therapies.
    PLoS Med. 2016 Mar 29;13(3):e1001984. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001984. eCollection 2016 Mar.
  17. Point-of-care G6PD diagnostics for Plasmodium vivax malaria is a clinical and public health urgency.
    BMC Med. 2015 Dec 14;13:296. doi: 10.1186/s12916-015-0531-0.
  18. Randomized trial of primaquine hypnozoitocidal efficacy when administered with artemisinin-combined blood schizontocides for radical cure of Plasmodium vivax in Indonesia.
    BMC Med. 2015 Dec 11;13(1):294. doi: 10.1186/s12916-015-0535-9.
  19. The challenges of introducing routine G6PD testing into radical cure: a workshop report.
    Malar J. 2015 Sep 29;14:377. doi: 10.1186/s12936-015-0896-8.
  20. Confirmed Plasmodium vivax Resistance to Chloroquine in Central Vietnam.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Dec;59(12):7411-9. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00791-15. Epub 2015 Sep 21.
  21. Tolerability and safety of weekly primaquine against relapse of Plasmodium vivax in Cambodians with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.
    BMC Med. 2015 Aug 25;13:203. doi: 10.1186/s12916-015-0441-1.
  22. Global database of matched Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax incidence and prevalence records from 1985-2013.
    Sci Data. 2015 Aug 18;2:150012. doi: 10.1038/sdata.2015.12. eCollection 2015.
  23. Malaria eradication and elimination: views on how to translate a vision into reality.
    BMC Med. 2015 Jul 25;13:167. doi: 10.1186/s12916-015-0384-6.
  24. Global extent of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax - Authors' reply.
    Lancet Infect Dis. 2015 Jun;15(6):630-1. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00018-3. Epub 2015 May 17.
  25. Defining the relationship between Plasmodium vivax parasite rate and clinical disease.
    Malar J. 2015 May 7;14:191. doi: 10.1186/s12936-015-0706-3.
  26. Still defining optimal primaquine therapy against relapse after 63 years of continuous use.
    Travel Med Infect Dis. 2015 May-Jun;13(3):215-6. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2015.04.006. Epub 2015 Apr 30.
  27. G6PD Deficiency at Sumba in Eastern Indonesia Is Prevalent, Diverse and Severe: Implications for Primaquine Therapy against Relapsing Vivax Malaria.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Mar 6;9(3):e0003602. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003602. eCollection 2015 Mar.
  28. Therapeutic Responses of Plasmodium vivax Malaria to Chloroquine and Primaquine Treatment in Northeastern Myanmar
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Feb;59(2):1230-5. doi: 10.1128/AAC.04270-14
  29. Therapeutic responses of Plasmodium vivax malaria to chloroquine and primaquine treatment in northeastern Myanmar.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Feb;59(2):1230-5. doi: 10.1128/AAC.04270-14. Epub 2014 Dec 15.
  30. The clinical and public health problem of relapse despite primaquine therapy: case review of repeated relapses of Plasmodium vivax acquired in Papua New Guinea.
    Malar J. 2014 Dec 12;13(1):488. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-488.
  31. Distance to Anopheles sundaicus larval habitats dominant among risk factors for parasitemia in meso-endemic Southwest Sumba, Indonesia.
    Pathog Glob Health. 2014 Dec;108(8):369-80. doi: 10.1179/2047773214Y.0000000167. Epub 2014 Dec 10.
  32. Impact of a spatial repellent on malaria incidence in two villages in Sumba, Indonesia.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014 Dec;91(6):1079-87. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.13-0735. Epub 2014 Oct 13.
  33. Noninferiority of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency diagnosis by a point-of-care rapid test vs the laboratory fluorescent spot test demonstrated by copper inhibition in normal human red blood cells.
    Transl Res. 2014 Sep 28. pii: S1931-5244(14)00336-3. doi: 10.1016/j.trsl.2014.09.009.
  34. Global extent of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Oct;14(10):982-91. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70855-2. Epub 2014 Sep 8
  35. Severe morbidity and mortality risk from malaria in the United States, 1985-2011
    Open Forum Infect Dis. 2014 Jun 30;1(1):ofu034. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofu034.
  36. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Primaquine Hemolytic Toxicity
    Encyclopedia of Malaria. 2014. Springer. New York: 1-16
  37. Pernicious and threatening Plasmodium vivax as reality.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014 Jul;91(1):1-2. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0111. Epub 2014 Apr 21.
  38. Geographical variation in Plasmodium vivax relapse.
    Malar J. 2014 Apr 15;13:144. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-144.
  39. Defining the geographical range of the Plasmodium knowlesi reservoir.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Mar 27;8(3):e2780. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002780. eCollection 2014 Mar.
  40. Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax: recurrent, difficult to treat, disabling, and threatening to life--the infectious bite preempts these hazards.
    Pathog Glob Health. 2013 Dec;107(8):475-9. doi: 10.1179/2047772413Z.000000000179.
  41. Spatial distribution of G6PD deficiency variants across malaria-endemic regions.
    Malar J. 2013 Nov 15;12:418. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-418.
  42. G6PD testing in support of treatment and elimination of malaria: recommendations for evaluation of G6PD tests.
    Malar J. 2013 Nov 4;12:391. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-391.
  43. Purnomo Projodipuro (April 11, 1934-May 10, 2013)
    Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 Aug;89(2):202-4. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.13-0284.
  44. Review of key knowledge gaps in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency detection with regard to the safe clinical deployment of 8-aminoquinoline treatment regimens: a workshop report.
    Malar J. 2013 Mar 27;12:112. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-112.
  45. Suppressive chemoprophylaxis invites avoidable risk of serious illness caused by Plasmodium vivax malaria.
    Travel Med Infect Dis. 2013 Jan-Feb;11(1):60-5. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2013.01.002
  46. The epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax. Preface.
    Adv Parasitol. 2013;81:xi-xii. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-407826-0.00050-3
  47. G6PD deficiency: global distribution, genetic variants and primaquine therapy.
    Adv Parasitol. 2013;81:133-201. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-407826-0.00004-7.
  48. Evidence and implications of mortality associated with acute Plasmodium vivax malaria.
    Clin Microbiol Rev. 2013 Jan;26(1):36-57. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00074-12.
  49. Randomized, open-label trial of primaquine against vivax malaria relapse in Indonesia.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Mar;57(3):1128-35. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01879-12.
  50. Tropical health and sustainability
    Infectious Diseases. 2013. Kanki, P, Grimes, DJ (ed). Tropical Health and Sustainability. Springer New York: 309-351
  51. Human ex vivo studies on asexual Plasmodium vivax: The best way forward.
    Int J Parasitol. 2012 Nov;42(12):1063-70
  52. G6PD Deficiency Prevalence and Estimates of Affected Populations in Malaria Endemic Countries: A Geostatistical Model-Based Map
    PLoS Med. 2012;9(11):e1001339
  53. Reinventing primaquine for endemic malaria
    Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2012 Dec;17(4):439-44.
  54. Good efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in eastern Sumba, East Nusatenggara, Indonesia.
    Acta Med Indones. 2012 Jul;44(3):187-92.
  55. A long neglected world malaria map: Plasmodium vivax endemicity in 2010
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6(9):e1814
  56. Primaquine radical cure of Plasmodium vivax: a critical review of the literature.
    Malar J. 2012 Aug 17;11:280.
  57. Primaquine toxicity forestalls effective therapeutic management of the endemic malarias
    Int J Parasitol. 2012 Nov;42(12):1049-54
  58. Serious and fatal illness associated with falciparum and vivax malaria among patients admitted to hospital at West Sumba in eastern Indonesia.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Jul;87(1):41-9. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0577.
  59. Plasmodium vivax endemicity in Indonesia in 2010
    PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e37325
  60. Severe disease in children hospitalized with a diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax in south-eastern Pakistan
    Malar J. 2012 May 2;11:144.
  61. Elimination therapy for the endemic malarias
    Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2012 Jun;14(3):227-37
  62. Chemotherapeutics challenges in developing effective treatments for the endemic malarias.
    Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist. 2012 Feb 17;2:256-61
  63. Review: Improving the therapeutic index of 8-aminoquinolines by the use of drug combinations: review of the literature and proposal for future investigations
    Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Dec;85(6):1010-4.
  64. Performance of the CareStart G6PD deficiency screening test, a point-of-care diagnostic for primaquine therapy screening
    PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28357.
  65. Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity in Indonesia in 2010.
    PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e21315.
  66. Resistance to chloroquine unhinges vivax malaria therapeutics
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 May;55(5):1827-30.
  67. Malaria distribution, prevalence, drug resistance and control in Indonesia.
    Adv Parasitol. 2011;74:41-175.
  68. Radical cure: the case for anti-relapse therapy against all malarias
    Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Mar 1;52(5):621-3.
  69. Eliminating malaria—all of them
    Lancet. 2010 Dec 4;376(9756):1883-5. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61494-8. Epub 2010 Oct 28.
  70. Consideration of ethics in primaquine therapy against malaria transmission
    Trends Parasitol. 2011 Jan;27(1):11-6.
  71. The international limits and population at risk of Plasmodium vivax transmission in 2009
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010 Aug 3;4(8):e774
  72. The 'non-falciparum' malarias: the roles of epidemiology, parasite biology, clinical syndromes, complications and diagnostic rigour in guiding therapeutic strategies
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2010 Jun;104(4):283-301.
  73. Clinical Course of Avian Infl uenza A(H5N1) in Patients at the Persahabatan Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia, 2005-2008
    Chest. 2010 Sep;138(3):665-73.
  74. Evaluation of chloroquine therapy for vivax and falciparum malaria in southern Sumatra, western Indonesia.
    Malar J. 2010 Feb 12;9:52
  75. Targeting the hypnozoite reservoir of Plasmodium vivax: the hidden obstacle to malaria elimination
    Trends Parasitol. 2010 Mar;26(3):145-51
  76. Severe and fatal vivax malaria challenges 'benign tertian malaria' dogma
    Ann Trop Paediatr. 2009 Dec;29(4):251-2. doi: 10.1179/027249309X12547917868808.
  77. Case report: Histopathology of fatal respiratory distress caused by Plasmodium vivax malaria
    Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Nov;81(5):758-62. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.2009.09-0348.
  78. Key gaps in the knowledge of Plasmodium vivax, a neglected human malaria parasite
    Lancet Infect Dis. 2009 Sep;9(9):555-66. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70177-X.
  79. Resistance to chloroquine by Plasmodium vivax at Alor in the Lesser Sundas Archipelago in eastern Indonesia
    Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Aug;81(2):338-42.
  80. Resistance to therapies for infection by Plasmodium vivax
    Clin Microbiol Rev. 2009 Jul;22(3):508-34. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00008-09.
  81. Malaria zoonoses
    Travel Med Infect Dis. 2009 Sep;7(5):269-77. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2009.06.004. Epub 2009 Jul 14.
  82. Acquired immunity to malaria
    Clin Microbiol Rev. 2009 Jan;22(1):13-36, Table of Contents. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00025-08.
  83. Combined chloroquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and primaquine against Plasmodium falciparum in Central Java, Indonesia.
    Malar J. 2006 Nov 14;5:108.
  84. Mefloquine Is Highly Efficacious against Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium vivax Malaria and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Papua, Indonesia.
    Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Apr 15;42(8):1067-72. Epub 2006 Mar 13.
  85. Pola Penyakit Transmigran Jawa dan Transmigran Lokal di Daerah Hiperendemis Malaria Armopa SP2, Kecamatan Bonggo, Kabupaten Jayapura, Papua Tahun 1996-1999
    Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan, 30 (4) 2002
  86. Primary infection by Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax in a cohort of Javanese migrants to Indonesian Papua
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2003 Sep;97(6):565-74.
  87. Onset of clinical immunity to Plasmodium falciparum among Javanese migrants to Indonesian Papua
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2003 Sep;97(6):557-64.
  88. Malaria in a Cohort of Javanese Migrants to Indonesian Papua
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2003 Sep;97(6):543-56.
  89. Age- Dependent Impairment of Ig G Responses to Glycosylphosphatidylinositol with Equal Exposure to Plasmodium Falciparum Among Javanese Migrants to Papua, Indonesia.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003 Jul;69(1):36-41.
  90. Plasmodium falciparum. Mechanisms of innate and acquired protection against Plasmodium falciparum in Javanese transmigrant adults and children newly resident in malaria-endemic Northwest Papua.
    SO - Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;531:83-102.
  91. Chloroquine or Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated, Plasmodium Falciparum malaria during an epidemic in central Java Indonesia.
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2002 Oct;96(7):655-68.
  92. Randomized, parallel placebo-controlled trial of primaquine for malaria prophylaxis in Papua, Indonesia
    Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Dec 15;33(12):1990-7. Epub 2001 Nov 12.
  93. The T76 mutation in the pfcrt gene of plasmodium falciparum and clinical chloroquine resistance phenotypes in Papua, Indonesia
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2001 Sep;95(6):559-72.