Hepatitis Laboratory


Hepatitis is one of the major public health diseases in the world. An estimated of 2 billion people globally has been infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), with approximately 240 millions suffered chronic hepatitis B – most of which live in East / South-East Asia or Africa. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is estimated to affect up to 150 million people worldwide. In addition, there are also sporadic cases of hepatitis A and hepatitis E, which may amount to about 20 million cases every year. Chronic hepatitis patients carry the potential risks of developing advanced liver diseases such as liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. It has been reported that clinical complications of viral hepatitis infection cause as many as 1.5 million deaths annually.

Routes of transmission for viral hepatitis depend on the type of the virus, with hepatitis A and E commonly spread by contaminated food or water, while hepatitis B, C, and D are passed on by means of direct contact of open wound with contaminated blood or bodily liquid. While hepatitis A and E may cause significant outbreaks, they are usually self-limiting and can be contained by good sanitary and hygiene food-handling. On the other hand, hepatitis B and C in particular, cause the problem of chronicity. In endemic countries in Africa and (South) East Asia such as Indonesia, the major routes of HBV and HCV transmission originated from mother-to-child (vertical) and blood donor or needle-injection (horizontal) transmission.

Indonesia is categorized as a moderate-to-highly endemic region for HBV infection with an average prevalence of 9.4%, and it also has a growing incidence rate of hepatitis C (0.05-3.37%). The diversity of ethnic populations in Indonesia in combination with the interactions between pathogen and its host’s genomic and phenotypic make up, Indonesia provides a wealth of data for studies in hepatitis, especially hepatitis B and C. The Hepatitis Laboratory of Eijkman Institute investigates multiple aspects of this disease, including its epidemiology, virology, diagnostic and clinical implications, as well as public health importance in various populations such as blood donors, healthy asymptomatic individuals, and clinical patients.

In genomic and phenotypic make up, Indonesia provides a wealth of data for studies in hepatitis, especially hepatitis B and C. The Hepatitis Laboratory of Eijkman Institute investigates multiple aspects of this disease, including its epidemiology, virology, diagnostic and clinical implications, as well as public health importance in various populations such as blood donors, healthy asymptomatic individuals, and clinical patients.



  1. Hyaluronic acid inhibition by 4-methylumbelliferone reduces the expression of cancer stem cells markers during hepatocarcinogenesis. Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 11;9(1):4026. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-40436-6.
  2. Reassortments among Avian Influenza A (H5N1) viruses circulating in Indonesia, 2015-2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019 Mar; 25(3): 465-472. doi:10.3201/eid2503.180167.
  3. Effective drugs on the road to HCV elimination and a therapeutic gap to close. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Feb;4(2):86-88. doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(18)30417-5.
  4. International liver transplantation society Asian consensus on the management of Hepatitis C virus infection in resource limited setting-froem noncirrhotic to decompensated disease and after liver transplantation. Transplantation. 2019 Apr; 103(14):733-746. doi: 10.1097/TP. 0000000000002453.
  5. Activation of hepatic stem cells compartment during hepatocarcinogenesis in a HBsAg HBV-transgenic mouse model. Sci Rep. 2018 Sep 3;8(1):13168. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-31406-5.
  6. Evolutionary study and phylodynamic pattern of human influenza A/H3N2 virus in Indonesia from 2008 to 2010. PLoS One. 2018 Aug 1: 13(8):e0201427. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0201427.
  7. Seroepidemiology of HBV infection among health-care workers in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. BMC Infect Dis. 2018 Jun 18; 18(1):279. doi: 10.1186/s12789-018-3190-x.
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  9. Hepatitis B virus infection among health care workers in Indonesia. Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol. 2018 Jan-Jun; 8(1): 88-92. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1269.
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  12. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and C in Republic of Indonesia. Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol. 2017 Jan-Jun; 7(1): 55-59. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10018-1212.
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  14. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in southeast and southern Asia: Challenges for governments. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 Nov; 1: 248-55. doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(16)30031-0.
  15. Primer development to obtain complete coding sequence of HA and NA genes of influenza A/H3N2 virus. BMC Res Notes. 2016 Aug 30; 9(1): 423. doi: 10.1186/s13104-016-2235-8.
  16. Significance of hepatitis virus infection in the oncogenic initiation of hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Jan 28; 22(4): 1497-512. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i4.1497.
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  18. High prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in young adults in Ternate, Eastern Indonesia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Dec; 93(6): 1349-55. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0331.
  19. Strategies to manage hepatitis C virus infection disease burden – volume 3. J Viral Hepat. 2015 Dec; 22 (Suppl 4):42-65. doi: 10.1111/jvh.12474.
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  21. Historical epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in select countries – volume 3. J Viral Hepat. 2015 Dec 22; 22 (Suppl 4): 4-20. doi: 10.1111/jvh.12475.
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  25. Current prevalence of Hepatitis B infection among parturient women in Jakarta, Indonesia. Acta Med Indonesiana. 2014 Jan; 46(1):3-9.
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  31. Prediction of conformational changes by single mutation in the Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) identified in HBsAg-negative blood donors. Virol J. 2010; 7: 326. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-7-326.
  32. Occult hepatitis B in blood donors in Indonesia: Altered antigenicity of the hepatitis B virus surface protein. Hepatol Int. 2010; 4: 608–14; doi: 10.1007/s12072-010-9203-5.
  33. Genetic study of Hepatitis B virus in Indonesia reveals a new subgenotype of genotype B in East Nusa Tenggara. Arch Virol. 2008; 153: 1057-65. doi: 10.1007/s00705-008-0092-z.
  34. Antiviral resistance in chronic Hepatitis B. Hepatol Int. 2008; doi:10.1007/s12072-007.
  35. Hepatology issues in Asia: Perspectives from regional leaders. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004; 19: S419-30.
  36. Prevalence of antibodies to Hepatitis E virus among apparently healthy humans and pigs in Bali, Indonesia: Identification of a pig Infected with a genotype 4 Hepatitis E virus. J Med Virol. 2004; 73: 38-44.
  37. Hepatitis B virus molecular diversity in Indonesia. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003; 531: 163-76.
  38. Molecular epidemiology of TT virus (TTV) and characterization of two novel TTV genotypes in Indonesia. Arch Virol. 2001; 146: 1249-66.